When it comes to business expenses, you can't necessarily deduct the entire purchase price in the year acquired. You may be required to depreciate assets or capital improvements. Click here if you wish to know how horses are depreciated.
What is depreciation?
Depreciation is the recovery of the cost of the property over a number of years rather than as a one-time write-off. This means you may deduct a portion of the cost each year until you fully recover its cost. The IRS provides guidance on how to depreciate property, including over how many years the cost must be spread, based on the type of asset. Some examples of property that you must depreciate include machinery, equipment, buildings, vehicles, furniture, and rental property. Land is never depreciable nor is personal property.
What do I need to know about depreciation?
Items below a certain value may be expensed in the year inquired rather than depreciated if the taxpayer makes a safe harbor election with their return. The current safe harbor value is $2,500.
The IRS also provides special depreciation allowances that may allow you to deduct 50% or 100% of the cost of the asset in the year in which it was acquired.
Understanding depreciation is an important aspect of business ownership. As a result of depreciation, your cash flow may not match your taxable income and it is key to plan for this difference so there are no surprises at tax time. In addition, you must consider the adjusted basis of your property when it is sold (the cost less depreciation) when determining if there was a gain or loss on the sale of the property.
This post may not contain a complete analysis of the tax issues discussed herein and does not represent official conclusions or advice regarding the matter.